Op-ed Writer: Amber Jamil
President Donald Trump’s recent executive order restricting immigration for 60 days is characterized as a short-term measure during the coronavirus crisis but may be a harbinger of tighter restrictions on future guest worker programs. The executive order applies to people seeking green cards for work, as well as spouses and children of legal permanent residents, and the parents, siblings, and adult children of U.S. citizens.There is concern the order will be extended indefinitely and become more restrictive.
Although Trump describes the order as temporary, it is an open-ended measure to remain in place until the administration determines the U.S. labor market has improved. A reevaluation in 60 days may extend restrictions as states reopen. This decision only accelerates the recession which is already all but a certainty.
There is overwhelming consensus by economists and the business community that immigrants fuel long-term economic growth. In fact, immigrants contributed to roughly two thirds of U.S. GDP expansion between 2011 and 2018. Nineteen percent of the nation’s 14.6 million self-employed workers are immigrants and responsible for a good share of the jobs created, hiring workers at virtually the same rate as the U.S. born.
A case study of Pakistani American physicians illuminates the critical role of immigrants in America and the reality of an intrinsic interconnectivity of social systems. The U.S. physician supply is strained in meeting the increasing health care demands of an ageing population. U.S. medical schools do not produce enough graduates to meet the needs of the country. Current forecasts expect a shortage between 40,800 and 104,900 of physicians by 2030. Without foreign doctors, the U.S. healthcare system would collapse, especially in rural communities.
About a quarter of all doctors in the U.S. are foreign-born and must secure a J-1 visa, a nonimmigrant exchange visa conditioned on an individuals return to their home country for two years at the conclusion of the program. Pakistan is one of the top sources of foreign doctors to the U.S, second only to India. There are approximately 17,000 physicians and health care professionals of Pakistani descent in the United States and Canada. Medical College of the University of Karachi Pakistan has one of the largest number of graduates actively licensed in the U.S.
Trump’s executive order restricting immigration will lead to a sharp increase in Pakistani visa denials and narrow the pipeline to citizenship. After completion of residencies, many international medical graduates seek Conrad 30 waivers from the requirement to return home for two years. In exchange, they are required to work for three years in underserved communities. Participation in the Conrad 30 program creates a pathway to citizenship and as a result, many foreign-born doctors launch their careers serving rural communities and economically disadvantaged populations.
Members of the Association of Physicians of Pakistani Descent of North America (APPNA) embody the best of pluralistic America, adding to the rich fabric of the country by serving in public, private and civic life in their home country, as well as mother country.
In recent weeks, APPNA chapters across the U.S. raised funds and implemented COVID-19 relief projects in local communities. APPNA distributed personal protective equipment to hospitals and clinics across NY, Georgia, Minnesota, Oklahoma, Florida and Texas. Other activities include distributing food to those in need, meals for first responders, staffing counseling helplines, conducting community awareness seminars, providing COVID-19 testing and volunteering in overwhelmed hospitals. In addition, APPNA members are contributing to Pakistan’s COVID-19 relief efforts through technical assistance as well as fundraising.
Across the country, American’s know Pakistani Americans as their doctors, employers and neighbors. Contrary to rhetoric on the topic, immigration contributes to economic growth and expansion of the labor market. Looking ahead, the current level of economic pain means the U.S. will emerge from the pandemic with millions of debt-saddled workers in need of work. All critical engines of growth will be needed for a stable public health and economic future.
Amber Jamil is an international relations professional with a focus on South Asia. She is a Nonresident Senior Fellow at the Atlantic Council South Asia Center. She has a Master of Arts in international relations from Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies.